Engine Types – Internal Combustion Engine

In an IC Engine, Combustion takes place inside the combustion chamber means fuel charge explosion occurs internally. Working & Arrangement of an IC Engine differs with it’s types. So we have discussed in details what are the Types of an IC Engine.

According to the various parameters like Number of strokes, fuel used, combustion cycle, cylinder number & arrangement, Ignition types, cooling types, An IC Engine is classified into following types.

• Number of strokes (per cycle)

1 – Four Stroke Engine

There are Intake, Compression, Combustion (Power) & Exhaust strokes for four stroke engine. These four strokes completes one operating cycle which produces two crankshaft revolutions.

2 – Two Stroke Engine

This type of engine has two piston strokes Viz. Compression & Expansion strokes for completion of one operating cycle. The cycle of operation produces one crankshaft revolution.

3 – Six Stroke Engine

This is modern & advanced concept of an engine in which two strokes & four strokes are combined in such a way that one cylinder makes two strokes & other cylinders make four strokes. This type of engine is named as a Six Stroke Engine.

• Thermodynamic Cycle

1 – Otto Cycle Engine

SI Engine works on Otto cycle. Spark Ignition is required for this type of engines. Petrol( Gasoline) is a required fuel.

2 – Diesel Cycle Engine

Diesel Engines means CI Engines works on Diesel Cycle. Spark Ignition is absent but power developed through compression of air-fuel charge.

3 – Dual Cycle Engine

It is also known as Mixed Cycle or Limited Pressure cycle. Otto & Diesel Cycle together makes Dual cycle. Engines which works on this cycle called Dual cycle engines. There are constant volume & constant pressure processes through which heat addition occurs.

• Type of Fuel

1 – Petrol Engine (Gasoline)

Petrol is used for this type of Engine. It is combined with air & combusted in a combustion chamber with the help of electric spark.

2 – Diesel Engine

Diesel is used for this type of engine. Spark is not required for burn fuel. It gets combusted through Compression only. Fuel Injectors are required for providing diesel into combustion chamber.

3 – Dual Fuel Engine

Dual fuel Engine runs on two kinds of intake charge either Gasoline or Natural Gas. This type of engine is also known as Bi – Fuel Engine.

• Ignition Method

1 – Spark Ignition Engine

SI Engines require petrol as fuel charge & electric spark to ignite fuel. Spark plug is used to produce a spark in a combustion chamber. This spark ignites the air – fuel mixture.

2 – Compression Ignition Engine

CI Engines require diesel as a fuel. Auto Ignition of fuel takes place with the compression process inside the combustion chamber. Air is compressed to high pressure & fuel is injected to generate the power in this type of engine.

• Number of Cylinders

1 – Single Cylinder Engine

It is the fundamental arrangement of piston – cylinder. Only one cylinder is used for this type of engine. It very simple & compact design.

2 – Multi Cylinder Engine

In this type of engine, Two or more cylinders are used. When Power requirement is more then multi cylinder engine is used. Four, Six & Eight Cylinder Engines are most popular engines.

• Arrangement of Cylinder

1 – Horizontally Opposed Engine

Cylinders are arranged opposed to each other with respect to crankshaft. They have common crankshaft. This type of engine is also known as a flat engine.

2 – Vertical Engine

Piston’s movement is vertically up & down. This type of Engine has a crankshaft below the cylinder.

3 – V – Type Engine

Cylinders are placed at some angle for this type of engine which makes a V – shape. This angle is generally in between 60 to 90 degrees.

4 – Radial Engine

This is also known as a reciprocating type of engine (Star Engine). Cylinders are placed in a wheel type of shape outward from the central crankcase. It gives us an idea of wheel & spoke arrangement.

5 – In-Line Engine

This is most commonly used conventional engine type. Cylinders are placed straight means In – Line. Two, Three, Four,..upto Eight cylinders can be placed in a straight line.

6 – X Engine

If Two V Engines are joined with the same crankshaft, X – Type of engine is formed means You can describe it in other words that X Engines are made up with two V Type of Engines.

7 – Opposed Piston Engine

Combustion chamber is used commonly by piston pair for this type of engine. There is co-axial type of piston arrangement but opposite to each other. Cylinder head is absent for this type of engine.

8 – W Engine

English letter W suggests the type of arrangement of cylinders. They have common crankshaft.

• Cooling System Type

1 – Air Cooled Engine

In this type of Engine, Cooling System used is air cooled means airflow is required for heat dissipation. There is a larger surface area of the Air cooled engine exposed to air.

2 – Water Cooled Engine

As name suggested that Water is used as a coolant for the cooling purpose of an engine. Engine block has various passages through which this water can pass as a coolant.

3 – Oil Cooled Engine

Heat dissipation is largely reduced with this type of coolant. Actual oil is not circulated through out the cooling system but Engine oil itself acts as a Coolant with the help of oil cooler.

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